Glaciation is a geological process that occurs when large masses of ice, called glaciers, form on land or move across the surface of the Earth. Glaciers are formed from snow that has accumulated over many years, which eventually becomes compressed and forms ice. Glaciation occurs in areas where the temperature is consistently below freezing and where there is enough snowfall to support the formation of glaciers.

There are two main types of glaciers: valley glaciers and ice sheets. Valley glaciers are long, narrow glaciers that flow down valleys and can be found in mountainous regions. Ice sheets, on the other hand, are much larger and cover vast areas of land, like the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

Glaciers have a significant impact on the Earth’s landscape and can erode, transport, and deposit large amounts of sediment as they move. As glaciers move across the land, they can carve out valleys, create ridges and moraines, and even shape the land’s overall topography.

Glaciation can also have a significant impact on the Earth’s climate, as glaciers reflect more sunlight back into space than land or water, causing a cooling effect on the climate. During the last ice age, which occurred approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago, large portions of the Earth were covered in ice sheets and glaciers, leading to significant changes in the Earth’s climate and ecosystems.

Today, glaciers are important indicators of climate change, as their size and extent are closely tied to global temperatures. The retreat of glaciers, as observed in many parts of the great world, is a sign of global warming and has significant implications for sea level rise, water resources, and ecosystems.

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